The Tax Man Commeth

    April 16, 2014 9:11 AM by Dr. Scott M. Shemwell

    Volume 3 Number 8

    For those of us in the United States, April 15th is the last day to file and pay your federal income tax for the prior calendar year.  This is taxation on income earned regardless of its source.  It is not a tax on the wealth of an individual—generally perceived to be monetary and real property by nature.

    According to one wise unknown prognosticator, “The real measure of your wealth is how much you’d be worth if you lost all your money.”[i]  This author posits that this definition of wealth is embodied in a number of definitions of societal culture.[ii]  Restated, one’s culture is a major component of his or her wealth!

    Politicians routinely seek to tax individual wealth.[iii]  One can argue that the estate tax is exactly that!  So is precedent set?

    As one of my college math professors often stated, “Because XYZ is (insert equation here); therefore, it is intuitively obvious that …”  I must confess, that logic often escaped me at the time.

    Culture should be taxed!  Say it isn’t so, how can that be?  Well it is happening now.

    France’s “Culture Tax” on intellectual content hosted by media and ‘smart’ devices is justified as a need to subsidize the “cultural industries” digital transition of French audio visual content providers.[iv]  This slippery slope suggests that wealth created by one class of economic actors can be taxed by another faction.

    Organizational culture is a major source of competitive advantage.  It is one of the major differentiators of stakeholder value.  This author has argued in this series and elsewhere that a strong safety culture is valuable and organizational transparency is another source of value.

    If this competitive advantage is taxed in an attempt level the playing field, it is likely that firms will not enter and may even exit such environments.  Such a cultural tax is effectively an extension of “nationalization.”[v]

    Firms must be ever vigilant that their Intellectual Property (IP) is protected.  Culture is a major tenet of this IP wealth.

    What is your company doing to defend the value of its culture?

    About the Author

    Dr. Scott M. Shemwell has over 30 years technical and executive management experience primarily in the energy sector.  He is the author of three books and has written extensively about the field of operations management.  Shemwell is the Managing Director of The Rapid Response Institute, a firm that focuses on providing its customers with solutions enabling operations excellence and regulatory compliance management.  He has studied cultural interactions for more than 30 years--his dissertation; Cross Cultural Negotiations Between Japanese and American Businessmen: A Systems Analysis (Exploratory Study) is an early peer reviewed manuscript addressing the systemic structure of social relationships.

    End Notes

    [i]  http://tinybuddha.com/blog/the-real-measure-of-your-wealth/
    [ii]  https://www.tamu.edu/faculty/choudhury/culture.html
    [iii]  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wealth_tax
    [iv]  http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-12-26/frances-culture-tax-could-hit-youtube-and-facebook
    [v]  http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/nationalization.html

    Cultural Sinistery

    April 3, 2014 8:29 AM by Dr. Scott M. Shemwell

    Volume 3 Number 7

    Grammarians will forgive the made up word in the title—it is meant to convey a sense of how culture can be used for ominous purposes as well as noble deeds.  The Europe of the 1930s is a subject of the political dialogue as of this writing.

    Whether nationalism is being resurrected (perhaps it has never left us) is not the subject of this piece.  Rather, one’s culture can become a tool for the unthinkable.[i]

    The German military had historically pledged allegiance to the state.  However, in 1934 the oath was changed from allegiance to the country to one of allegiance to an individual.  Feeling duty bound officers obeyed him even as he led the country and the world to destruction.[ii]

    Pundits talk of cultural transformation and/or change all the time as if management can will it on the organization.  However, Nilofer Merchant noted in her 2011 blog, “If the strategy conflicts with how a group of people already believe, behave or make decisions it will fail.”[iii]

    Changing behavior is a challenge.  Losing weight, stop smoking, start exercising, be a nicer person are all good New Year’s resolutions that for most (88%) have fallen off by this time of year.  Vague aspirations not tied to specific behavioral modifications are not internalized or institutionalized by us humans.  Making new behavior habit is the key.[iv]

    This author still hears industry conversations that suggest that the need for a culture of “more” and systemic safety is overblown.  Can it be that this resistance and even denial is based on the overall industry long standing beliefs and behaviors?

    The clarion call to leaders changing the culture is keep the pressure on.  Old habits die hard.  And yes, use the Idiosyncrasies of your culture that can provide transformation advantage in a positive way.

    What stands in your organization’s way of making safer operations habitual?

    About the Author

    Dr. Scott M. Shemwell has over 30 years technical and executive management experience primarily in the energy sector.  He is the author of three books and has written extensively about the field of operations management.  Shemwell is the Managing Director of The Rapid Response Institute, a firm that focuses on providing its customers with solutions enabling operations excellence and regulatory compliance management.  He has studied cultural interactions for more than 30 years--his dissertation; Cross Cultural Negotiations Between Japanese and American Businessmen: A Systems Analysis (Exploratory Study) is an early peer reviewed manuscript addressing the systemic structure of social relationships.

    End Notes

    [i] http://alphahistory.com/nazigermany/hitler-and-the-reichswehr/
    [ii] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hitler_oath
    [iii] http://blogs.hbr.org/2011/03/culture-trumps-strategy-every/
    [iv] http://blog.bufferapp.com/the-science-of-new-years-resolutions-why-88-fail-and-how-to-make-them-work

    Sustainability?

    March 17, 2014 9:08 AM by Dr. Scott M. Shemwell

    Volume 3 Number 6

    Pundits talk about change and the need for all of us to respond to environmental forces whether business or life driven.  Early adopters are quick to try new things and invest reasonable amounts in the potential future.  The fundamental challenge is whether or not the energy expended makes the new the reality.

    As a physics student, this author learned that applied energy will cause an electron jump to a higher orbit.  However, once that energy was withdrawn, the electron returns to its original orbit steady state.  This allegory was applied to human behavior in this blog, Repetita Placent, Volume 2 Number 9—May 2, 2013.

    So the challenge becomes sustaining the higher energy level.  It is easy to conduct a “rah rah” session.  A workshop, offsite or team building initiative will get everyone on the same page; today.  But what about tomorrow?

    Cultural transformation is physics.  Energy must be applied and sustained.  When management believes that a temporal investment is enough, they will be disappointed.  A perpetual outlay is required.

    Commitment is hard.  It requires a decision with recognition that accountability is integral.  Human energy cannot be withdrawn or else, the value drops to a lower level.

    When an organization embarks on a change management program, it must recognize that transformation is truly that.  Allowing individuals, departments or the enterprise to retreat cannot be an option.  The energy cannot be withdrawn or the old order will reemerge.

    How does your firm assure transformation sustainability?

    About the Author

    Dr. Scott M. Shemwell has over 30 years technical and executive management experience primarily in the energy sector.  He is the author of two books and has written extensively about the field of operations management.  Shemwell is the Managing Director of The Rapid Response Institute, a firm that focuses on providing its customers with solutions enabling operations excellence and regulatory compliance management.

    Nonlinear

    March 3, 2014 9:09 AM by Dr. Scott M. Shemwell

    Volume 3 Number 5

    We humans embrace change and we have made this point in these virtual pages several times.  However, we struggle with disruptive transformations.  For example, natural disasters force change upon unwilling and sometimes unsuspecting participants.  Yet most overcome and when interviewed later many actually see the positive in life changing incidents.

    This author has made the case for a couple of decades at least that much of management thought is more along the lines of evolution as opposed to revolution.  Most management gurus build upon the work of their managerial forefathers. [i]  Management principles advance in a linear fashion.

    Economist Joseph Schumpeter’s Creative Destruction suggests a level of mutation that results from the rebuilding of process norms.[ii]  Some data suggests that this process accounts for more than 50 percent of the growth in productivity.[iii]

    So the evidence suggests that innovation or nonlinear change adds the most value, yet managerial philosophy tends to move in a less dramatic manner.  In other words, human nature has not changed much if at all when measured at the fundamental levels.

    For almost four years, the energy industry has been undergoing a linear/nonlinear transformation to a new culture; one of a Safety Culture as defined by the nine characteristics issued by BSEE.[iv]  This process is linear in that managerial practices are evolving as good practices.[v]

    This process is nonlinear in the sense that desired end state is a cultural transformation that will be enabled by new technologies.[vi]  The digital engineer of this new Culture of Safety will perform his or her work in a much different manner than today.

    Much as our horse and buggy forefathers would not recognize today’s metropolitan traffic, this generation will not recognize tomorrow’s Culture of Safety drilling operation.  However, human instincts and fundamental drivers will not have changed.

    In our technologically driven society, this tension at the margin will continue.  The linear and nonlinear will coexist and act as accelerators as well as brakes on change management processes.

    How is your organization implementing nonlinear cultural change?

     

    About the Author

    Dr. Scott M. Shemwell has over 30 years technical and executive management experience primarily in the energy sector.  He is the author of two books and has written extensively about the field of operations management.  Shemwell is the Managing Director of The Rapid Response Institute, a firm that focuses on providing its customers with solutions enabling operations excellence and regulatory compliance management.

    End Notes

    [i] Shemwell, Scott M. (1993). Management Theory - Evolution Not Revolution, Proceedings of the 11th Annual Conference of the Association of Management, 11 (2), pp. 74 - 78. http://www.scribd.com/doc/13395793/Management-Theory-Evolution-Not-Revolution
    [ii] http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/CreativeDestruction.html
    [iii] http://economics.mit.edu/files/1785
    [iv] http://www.bsee.gov/uploadedFiles/BSEE/Safety/Robust%20Safety%20Culture%20Poster.pdf
    [v] Shemwell, 1993.
    [vi] http://www.amazon.com/IMPLEMENTING-CULTURE-SAFETY-PERFORMANCE-COMPLIANCE-ebook/dp/B00ILXY7ZC/ref=sr_1_3?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1393686437&sr=1-3&keywords=dutch+holland+phd

    Cyber T

    February 17, 2014 12:42 PM by Dr. Scott M. Shemwell

    Volume 3 Number 4

    Almost a decade ago this author put forth the concept of a Chief Security Officer, an individual responsible for both physical and cyber security of the global enterprise.[i]  One of the points made in support of that position was the long-standing dispersed information management that was integrated with plant operations.

    In another piece of that era, an economic risk framework was put forth that incorporated quantitative as well as qualitative data and information into a decision support model.  Aspects of such a model might include:

    • An assessment of the relative exposure and identification of vulnerability entrance points
    • Stochastic modeling of event possibilities and the development of sensitivities to possibilities that can then be quantified as a range
    • Predictive modeling of a set of possible eventualities and their impact on the organization

    Such a model can be built using available software tools incorporating the specific data and information to which an individual firm may expect to be exposed.  Finally, modeling the once-in-a-lifetime cataclysmic event that only the most pessimistic expect and developing response plans to Armageddon is possible, and, importantly, is being done in the power industry today.[ii]

    The threat to control systems is not new.  In early 2000, an employee from an Australian software manufacturer was fired, and when he was turned down for a job with the local government, he retaliated using wireless technology illegally acquired from his former employer to release millions of gallons of raw sewage.[iii]

    Flash forward ten years and Cyber Terrorism has been taken to a new level.  This is not to say nothing has been done, but that the challenges rise at a meteoric rate.

    Historically, there has been an “air gap” between control systems and other IT systems on Mobil Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs).  In other words a physical barrier or disconnect.  However, poor system management procedures and a growing hunger for data may compromise this barrier.[iv]

    Poor IT governance has led to significant damage from cyber-attacks.  It appears that the retailer, Target cybersecurity team raised concerns prior to cyber-attack last year.  Perhaps lost in the volume of warning received, yet it is apparent that the company’s payment network did not have sufficient isolation from the rest of the firm’s IT systems.[v]

    So we raise the question once again.  Is it time for a CSO reporting directly to the CEO?  Much like the focus of enterprise risk management, this would focus, fund and measure the firm’s exposures to physical and cyber terrorism.  This individual would also be responsible to assure zonal isolation for IT networks.

    Does your firm’s governance model assure the isolation of control systems?

    About the Author

    Dr. Scott M. Shemwell has over 30 years technical and executive management experience primarily in the energy sector.  He is the author of two books and has written extensively about the field of operations management.  Shemwell is the Managing Director of The Rapid Response Institute, a firm that focuses on providing its customers with solutions enabling operations excellence and regulatory compliance management.

    End Notes

    [i] http://www.energycentral.com/gridtandd/communicationsandsecurity/articles/957/Security-Integration
    [ii] Shemwell, Scott M. (2004, April) Integrated Physical and Cyber Security: A High Value Proposition for the Power Industry. Author.
    [iii] Ibid.
    [iv] http://www.digitalenergyjournal.com/n/Cyberattacks_to_drill_rigs_understanding_the_threats/1eccd4a9.aspx
    [v] http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304703804579381520736715690?mg=reno64-wsj&url=http%3A%2F%2Fonline.wsj.com%2Farticle%2FSB10001424052702304703804579381520736715690.html

    Maturity Model

    February 4, 2014 8:40 AM by Dr. Scott M. Shemwell

    Volume 3 Number 3

    The last two words of the last issue are maturity curve as it relates to organizational governance.  This follows a point of view that human thinking as well as technology develops and matures over time.  Regarding management, from Wikipedia, “The term "maturity" relates to the degree of formality and optimization of processes, from ad hoc practices, to formally defined steps, to managed result metrics, to active optimization of the processes.”[i]

    The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) was first described in 1989 book Managing the Software Process as a software development process maturity framework.[ii]  It has subsequently become a general model to aid many business processes.[iii]

    Its roots can be traced back to a need to manage complex software development processes beginning with the broad use of computer systems, circa 1960s.  The model began its transition into its current form in the 1980s when the US Department of Defense needed a method for “evaluating the capability of software contractors as part of awarding contracts.”[iv]  The requirement to integrate software projects across an enterprise transformed the early CMM into the current Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) installment.[v]

    In 2004, the author applied the maturity concept to the then emerging field of the digital oilfield.[vi]  At the time, there was a one size fits all approach to IT systems and it became clear that some oil assets did not require the full integrated system many vendors were selling.  This model sought to align IT with business requirements—does this sound familiar?  The resulting Asset Maturity Model (AMM) remains a unique framework for assessing the degree of formality and optimization of processes, from ad hoc practices, to formally defined steps, to managed result metrics, to active optimization of the digital oilfield aka, Integrated Operations processes

    In 2011, PennEnergy and the author were researching how the industry was implementing the new Safety and Environmental Management System (SEMS) requirements for US Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) drilling operations.[vii]  SEMS made and continues to make formidable changes to the upstream technical and business processes.

    As part of that research effort along with the changes that were being made to Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) suggested that modifications would be required to organizational governance models.  For example, while it has always been the case, regulatory compliance is now explicitly mandated at the operator and supply chain level.

    As such, the industry has made changes to the manner the Well Construction Interface Document Guidelines are being used.[viii]  Bridging documents are now extended to all suppliers of goods and services used in OCS drilling operations.  Logically, this can be expected to extend to all US (and perhaps globally) drilling operations in the future.  Therefore, it was logical to extend the AMM and apply it to new governance requirements—Asset/Equipment Integrity Governance. (AEIG).

    AEIG captures all aspects of organizational governance as extended to the supply chain and operations/production process.  It provides management with a quantifiable approach that incorporates the subjective knowledge of the organization and other constituents into a singular model.[ix]  The first of the AEIG four pillars is organizational maturity.

    Enterprise risk and financial exposure is at an all-time high.  AEIG suggests to markets that, “Strong governance demonstrates a strength of purpose” or as noted in the last edition—Strength of Ideas.[x]

    What is the maturity level of your governance model and should it be higher?

     

    About the Author

    Dr. Scott M. Shemwell has over 30 years technical and executive management experience primarily in the energy sector.  He is the author of two books and has written extensively about the field of operations management.  Shemwell is the Managing Director of The Rapid Response Institute, a firm that focuses on providing its customers with solutions enabling operations excellence and regulatory compliance management.

    End Notes

    [i] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capability_Maturity_Model
    [ii] http://www.amazon.com/Managing-Software-Process-Watts-Humphrey/dp/0201180952
    [iii] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capability_Maturity_Model
    [iv] Ibid.
    [v] http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/
    [vi] http://www.worldoil.com/November-2004-Knowing-the-economic-value-of-information.html
    [vii] http://www.bsee.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Safety-and-Environmental-Management-Systems---SEMS/Safety-and-Environmental-Management-Systems---SEMS/
    [viii] American Petroleum Institute. (2013, November). Well Construction Interface Document Guidelines (API Bulletin 97, First Edition). Washington, D.C.: Author.
    [ix] http://www.therrinstitute.com/uploads/Asset_Integrity_Governance_-Ver_1.1.pdf
    [x] Ibid.

    Strength of Ideas

    January 16, 2014 12:52 PM by Dr. Scott M. Shemwell

    Volume 3 Number 2

    History is replete with examples where ideas have overcome significant hurdles.  One example is the conversion of the Roman Empire to Christianity in 312 AD.[i]

    Some may argue that this was almost three hundred years after the Crucifixion and that it was a societal transition not simply a decreed event.  The counter point is that a transformation along the magnitude from one of a pagan society to Christianity in less than three centuries of the almost 200,000 years of human existence is very quick indeed.[ii]

    The Twentieth Century entertainer and one time Vaudeville performer, Eddie Cantor famously said, “It takes 20 years to make an overnight success.”[iii]  More recently and popularized by Malcolm Gladwell in his book Outliers (published 2008), the so-called 10,000 hour rule suggests that it takes about 10 years to master a field of expertise—the principle actually dates to a 1993 study.[iv]

    As early as 1993, this author was arguing that good ideas like good wine or scotch gets better with age.  This hypothesis is that the current state of the practice of management is a function of all the human organizational knowledge that preceded it.[v]  Some readers may recall that this was during an era when many new management techniques emerged from a number of practitioners claiming new and often profound business understanding.

    On a separate note this article, Management Theory - Evolution Not Revolution has been down loaded almost 15,000 times and I have long suspected it is often referenced in high school and college student papers.

    Another example, the Smart Phone disrupted the cell phone market and challenges the PC for computing dominance.  Achieving critical market share towards the end of the last decade, it too can trace its roots to IBM/ BellSouth in 1993.[vi]

    Good ideas honed by passionate and committed people do change the world.  Disruptive beliefs, knowledge and/or technologies have given us the society we enjoy today.  They often just don’t happen overnight.

    Circa the 1970’s a popular poster was of a cat hanging by it paws from a tree branch.  Tagged, “Hang in there,” it intention was one of motivation.[vii]  So stay after your New Years’ Resolutions and nurture those great ideas.  According to the French scientist, Louis Pasteur, “Fortune favors the prepared mind.”[viii]

    So it goes with good governance.  Organizational governance models are driven by these same behavioral models.  Make this New Year the one your firm’s governance model advances up the maturity curve.

    How will you nurture your good ideas this New Year?

     

    About the Author

    Dr. Scott M. Shemwell has over 30 years technical and executive management experience primarily in the energy sector.  He is the author of two books and has written extensively about the field of operations management.  Shemwell is the Managing Director of The Rapid Response Institute, a firm that focuses on providing its customers with solutions enabling operations excellence and regulatory compliance management.

    End Notes

    [i]  http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/christianityromanempire_article_01.shtml
    [ii]  http://www.librarything.com/topic/72547
    [iii] http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/e/eddie_cantor.html
    [iv] http://www.wired.com/opinion/2013/05/so-you-know-that-10000-hours-makes-an-expert-rule-bunk/
    [v] http://www.scribd.com/doc/13395793/Management-Theory-Evolution-Not-Revolution
    [vi] http://www.techhive.com/article/199243/a_brief_history_of_smartphones.html
    [vii] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hang_in_there,_Baby
    [viii] http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/l/louispaste159478.html

    Into the Breach

    January 2, 2014 9:08 AM by Dr. Scott M. Shemwell

    Volume 3 Number 1

    At the end of the year 2013 we learned that shopping at a major US retail company could end up compromising very personal financial information and perhaps enable thieves to steal from you.  Earlier we discovered that the new healthcare.gov website did not meet certain technical standards much less the expectations of the public.  Finally, many gifts purchased online did not arrive before Christmas generating negative comments about both the affected retailers and shipping companies.

    Cyber security and operational performance are critical in today’s online society and the energy (digital oilfield) and other critical industries are no exceptions.  However, as previously discussed in this blog Normal Incident Failure (NIF) theory predicts eventual failures in complex systems.[i]  However, High Reliability Management (HRM) suggests that NIF are not pre-ordained.[ii]

    Many of the notable, high profile incidents of the energy industry have also been dissected in these pages as well.  In our imperfect human world public organizational shortcomings happen.

    What happens next may determine how the public and governments feel about the incident.  Crisis management and rapid response aside, a lack of honest and forthcoming information from the top levels of the affected organization is often the tipping point from a bad situation to a disastrous one.

    The culture of an organization determines how it responds to adversity.  “How we do things around here,” dictates our instinctual response during times of crisis.[iii]  The trait cannot be counseled by crisis management consultants or the legal department.

    Humans routinely respond in emergencies and save others from certain injury of death.  These responders typically say that their “gut kicked in” or their “training” made their decision to act unconscious.

    As the energy industry transitions to a culture of safety, one sign of success will be management’s instinctive response to a future incident.  If talking points and legalize are the first words then there is still work to be done.

     

    What is your organization’s instinctive response during crisis management?

     

    About the Author

    Dr. Scott M. Shemwell has over 30 years technical and executive management experience primarily in the energy sector.  He is the author of two books and has written extensively about the field of operations management.  Shemwell is the Managing Director of The Rapid Response Institute, a firm that focuses on providing its customers with solutions enabling operations excellence and regulatory compliance management.

    End Notes

    [i]  Perrow, Charles. (1999). Normal Accidents: Living with High-Risk Technologies. New Jersey: Princeton.
    [ii]  Holland, Winford “Dutch” E. and Shemwell, Scott M. (in press). Implementing a Culture of Safety: A Roadmap to Performance-Based Compliance. New York: Xlibris.
    [iii] Ibid.

    Reflection

    December 16, 2013 9:26 AM by Dr. Scott M. Shemwell

    Volume 2 Number 24

    As we close out the Gregorian calendar year, it is common practice to reflect on the past year and note our accomplishments as well as review our short comings.[i]  With this edition, this blog closes our second year addressing contemporary issues surrounding governance models and transparency.

    During this period our world has undergone major transformations.  The upstream oil and gas industry continues to strengthen its safety processes, in the United States heath care has been renovated and globally security remains challenging among others.

    The Gregorian calendar is just one method of marking time.  On January 31, 2014 the Chinese year 4712 begins.[ii]  Other cultures and religions celebrate the New Year on other dates as well.[iii]

    One constant throughout is the “clash of cultures.”  In this series we have discussed issues of cultural change and cultural interaction a number of times.  Moreover, in our forthcoming book we will deep dive into the cultural transformation process heavy industry must undergo to assure compliance with societal demands.[iv]

    Driven by a number of factors including technology, .i.e. social media, we can expect the rate of change and cross cultural interaction to remain high and perhaps accelerate.  Moreover, the nuances of a given culture are more apparent than ever.

    This suggests that communication between cultures will continue to be demanding.  However, tools are available enable more effective communications among disparate groups.[v]

    How will your organization’s governance model handle accelerated cross cultural interactions?

     

    About the Author

    Dr. Scott M. Shemwell has over 30 years technical and executive management experience primarily in the energy sector.  He is the author of two books and has written extensively about the field of operations management.  Shemwell is the Managing Director of The Rapid Response Institute, a firm that focuses on providing its customers with solutions enabling operations excellence and regulatory compliance management.

    End Notes

    [i]  http://www.timeanddate.com/calendar/gregorian-calendar.html
    [ii]  http://www.infoplease.com/spot/chinesenewyear1.html
    [iii]  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_calendars
    [iv]  Holland, Winford “Dutch” E. and Shemwell, Scott M. (in press). Implementing a Culture of Safety: A Roadmap to Performance-Based Compliance. New York: Xlibris.
    [v] Shemwell, Scott M. (1996). Cross Cultural Negotiations between Japanese and American Businessmen: A Systems Analysis, (Exploratory Study). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, Ft. Lauderdale.