Attorney General Ken Paxton on Friday announced the lawsuit, which was filed in federal court based in the District of Columbia.
Texas has sued the federal government more than 30 times since President Barack Obama took office, with those cases most frequently challenging environmental regulations.
Paxton's office is objecting to federal rules limiting emissions of greenhouse gases, especially methane, which are common in oil and natural gas production.
Texas' filing was condensed with those of other states, including major oil producer North Dakota.
Paxton's office called the rules "a gross demonstration of federal overreach" and said "the EPA has failed to consider the steep cost of this rule on the existing industry."